A field hospital is a small movable medical facility or a mini hospital that temporarily takes care of casualties on-site before they can be safely transported to permanent hospital facilities, Temporary care, can do in a mobile emergency response unit or modern mobile hospitals. They can be placed near of the battlefield, or in the case of disasters, the scene of the natural or human-made catastrophe.
In fact, they are developed to be used overwhelmingly in military situations or in unpredictable tragedies they can be useful too. At first, the base of the field hospitals inherited from traditional Military medicine. Now, It (Mobile Army Surgical Hospital –MASH ) is a good assistant to help injured persons care system.
The World Health Organization introduces field hospitals as: “a mobile or transportable, self-contained, self-sufficient health care facility capable of rapid deployment and expansion or contraction to meet immediate emergency requirements for a specified period.”
The treatment of wounded in war is an ancient art, but in recent years several companies have developed them by the expandable trailer and extendable container. Modern systems are mostly included several expandable Containers, and expandable trailers replace old tent shelter.
It is so difficult to help disabled persons without medical equipment, devices, and clean area so a useful utility must be included portable medical kits and suitable mobile (or transportable ) medical room. In this case, they can help us in serious situations.
Field hospital can be a wide tent-like shelter (in modern usage is an inflatable structure) or expandable container, but the mobile Medical room is an expandable trailer or medical trailer. It can be placed quickly near the source of the disaster or battlefield. Therefore it is better to set them up near a highly visible building (such as a restaurant, school, and so on) or an easily accessible area In an urban environment in crisis conditions.
In the case of an airborne structure, the transportable medical kit is often placed in the standard container; after setting a field hospital, empty container can be used as shelter or storage too. A field hospital is larger than a temporary aid station but smaller than a permanent military hospital. Expandable emergency response trailer can be used as temporary aid station too.
The mobile hospital can be arranged with seven extendable trailers (and official medical trailer) in minimum configuration, but it is available in large scale too. Large scale mobile hospital can be combined several expandable and standard medical trailers.
According to the international humanitarian law, every hospital has its own protective rules .attack at a hospital or any medical unit is considered as a war crime and also the use of a hospital or medical center is prohibited by military action . for example the usage of a hospital as a fortification.
Against international laws to use a hospital, ambulance or other medical facilities for camouflage of the soldiers who aren’t wounded.
In addition to international rules and military codes, all countries support hospitals and medical personnel.This section is a cornerstone of international law, which began in 1864, and is part of the Four Condensation of Geneva in 1949, which was added in 1977. Doctors nurses and medical personnel are required to treat a patient and injured in a war zone. The attack on them or the hospitals in which they work is a huge crime. International law protects the medical profession to ensure that they do not have a military intervention. They should treat patients according to their medical needs, and they should not be forced to give priority to one another. Medical personnel should not be punished for their medical activities unless they are sick.they may not violate doctor-patient confidentiality.
All hospital staff must remain neutral and ethical at all times and may not take sides in a war or dispute. Medical care units must collect all weapons at the entrance to the facility and store them until the patient is released. Medical personnel is not immune from seizing if enemy soldiers take area or territory containing mobile hospitals or medical equipment. The medical team and patients should be treated with respect. They must be allowed to perform their regular duties tending to the sick and wounded. In international conflicts, permanent medical personnel must be repatriated except for a short period when their services are needed to care for their patients.
Permanent medical personnel is those who are assigned to a medical mission for the entire time of the conflict. It is also possible to use the medical skills of temporary staff in prison. If a conflict is not international, then the above distinctions between permanent and temporary medical personnel are not made. But in no case may medical personnel be punished for caring for sick and wounded enemy soldiers.